Have a question? Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in many foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. It is the generic name for six compounds vitamers with vitamin B6 activity: pyridoxine, an alcohol; pyridoxal, an aldehyde; and pyridoxamine, which contains an amino group; and their respective 5'-phosphate esters.
Substantial proportions of the naturally occurring pyridoxine in fruits, vegetables, and grains exist in glycosylated forms that exhibit reduced bioavailability [ 3 ]. Vitamin B6 in coenzyme forms performs a wide variety of functions in the body and is extremely versatile, with involvement in more than enzyme reactions, mostly concerned with protein metabolism [ 1 ].
Vitamin B6 also plays a role in cognitive development through the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and in maintaining normal levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in the blood [ 3 ]. Vitamin B6 is involved in gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, immune function for example, it promotes lymphocyte and interleukin-2 productionand hemoglobin formation [ 3 ]. The human body absorbs vitamin B6 in the jejunum.Top 10 Foods High in Vitamin B6
Phosphorylated forms of the vitamin are dephosphorylated, and the pool of free vitamin B6 is absorbed by passive diffusion [ 2 ]. Vitamin B6 concentrations can be measured directly by assessing concentrations of PLP; other vitamers; or total vitamin B6 in plasma, erythrocytes, or urine [ 1 ]. Vitamin B6 concentrations can also be measured indirectly by assessing either erythrocyte aminotransferase saturation by PLP or tryptophan metabolites.
Plasma PLP is the most common measure of vitamin B6 status.
DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people.
These values, which vary by age and gender, include:. Table 1 lists the current RDAs for vitamin B6 [ 1 ]. For infants from birth to 12 months, the FNB established an AI for vitamin B6 that is equivalent to the mean intake of vitamin B6 in healthy, breastfed infants.
Vitamin B6 is found in a wide variety of foods [ 134 ]. The richest sources of vitamin B6 include fish, beef liver and other organ meats, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, and fruit other than citrus. In the United States, adults obtain most of their dietary vitamin B6 from fortified cereals, beef, poultry, starchy vegetables, and some non-citrus fruits [ 135 ].
The U. Food and Drug Administration FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. FDA does not require food labels to list vitamin B6 content unless vitamin B6 has been added to the food. Department of Agriculture's USDA's FoodData Central lists the nutrient content of many foods and provides a comprehensive list of foods containing vitamin B6 arranged by nutrient content and by food name.
Vitamin B6 is available in multivitamins, in supplements containing other B complex vitamins, and as a stand-alone supplement [ 9 ].
The most common vitamin B6 vitamer in supplements is pyridoxine in the form of pyridoxine hydrochloride [HCl]although some supplements contain PLP. Vitamin B6 supplements are available in oral capsules or tablets including sublingual and chewable tablets and liquids.
Absorption of vitamin B6 from supplements is similar to that from food sources and does not differ substantially among the various forms of supplements [ 1 ]. Although the body absorbs large pharmacological doses of vitamin B6 well, it quickly eliminates most of the vitamin in the urine [ 10 ].
Adults aged 51 years or older and children younger than 9 are more likely than members of other age groups to take supplements containing vitamin B6. The average vitamin B6 intake is about 1. Among supplement users and nonusers, plasma PLP levels were much lower in women than men, non-Hispanic blacks than non-Hispanic whites, current smokers than never smokers, and people who were underweight than those of normal weight.
Vitamin B6 Toxicity
Teenagers had the lowest vitamin B6 concentrations, followed by adults aged 21—44 years. However, plasma PLP levels in the elderly were not particularly low, even in those who did not use supplements. Based on these data, the authors of this analysis concluded that the current RDAs might not guarantee adequate vitamin B6 status in many population groups [ 12 ]. PLP concentrations tend to be low in people with alcohol dependence; those who are obese; and pregnant women, especially those with preeclampsia or eclampsia [ 1 ].
They are also low in people with malabsorption syndromes such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis [ 3 ].Vitamin B6 Toxicity is a real phenomenon that can occur not only when you take too much Vitamin B6, also known as Pyridoxine, but in certain people it can occur without having taken any Vitamin B6 at all.
For those having become toxic from taking high amounts of Vitamin B6, the solution is obvious- stop taking Vitamin B6. However, for those not taking Vitamin B6, the solution is less obvious, made even more confusing by contradictory speculation all over the internet.
Find out the real reason why people get Vitamin B6 toxicity when they are not taking Vitamin B6, or only taking small amounts of it. Even though Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble B Vitamin, unlike most reports that water soluble vitamins simply wash out of the body in the urine if taken in excess, this is not necessarily true of Vitamin B6, and the excess can lead to symptoms such as painful Peripheral Neuropathy.
Vitamin B6, while obviously being an important Vitamin, is critical in various functions throughout the body. But how much is too much? The answer is: it entirely depends upon your body. There are some people with such a high need for Vitamin B6 that they need to take thousands of milligrams per day, while there are some people who report high Vitamin B6 levels in blood just from the amount that they get in their diet or when taking a multivitamin.
They often think that they are experiencing Vitamin B6 Side Effects instead of the actual toxicity they are experiencing.Locked out of winbook
You can simply ask your doctor for it, but most doctors are not used to this blood test and may not see a need for you to get tested for this critical nutrient. Unfortunately, the blood test is tricky to understand and can be a bit misleading. A normal level is usually just that- normal.
And there is no reason to take any action. One reason that someone might have a high Vitamin B6 level is because they are taking too high a dose of Vitamin B6 supplements. Virtually all multivitamins contain Vitamin B6, but the amounts in multivitamins are too small to cause toxicity unless there are other problems, as discussed below.
However, if you have high levesl and you are not taking supplements, the most likely problem is the MTHFR Gene that can easily be detected on a 23andMe Genetic Test done using a simple mouth swab.Onimusha soul
This is because the vitamins build up in the bloodstream, where they are measured, but the vitamins can't get into the cells where they are needed. This may explain the functional need for high-dose vitamin B6 supplementation in many children and adults with autism. Because of this, the solution to Vitamin B6 Toxicity in those who are taking no or little Vitamin B6 is to get tested for the MTHFR geneand if positive, they will need to actually supplement with high doses of B Vitamins, despite having high levels, but in the proper forms that can be processed by the body.
These forms are able to be processed by the body so that they get into the cells where they can be utilized for body processes.
Not a Typical Water Soluble Vitamin Even though Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble B Vitamin, unlike most reports that water soluble vitamins simply wash out of the body in the urine if taken in excess, this is not necessarily true of Vitamin B6, and the excess can lead to symptoms such as painful Peripheral Neuropathy. Search this Site. Everything in this site is provided for information only.
Any medical decisions should be made with the assistance of a medical professional.Vitamin B6 includes a group of closely related compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine.
They are metabolized in the body to pyridoxal phosphate, which acts as a coenzyme in many important reactions in blood, central nervous system, and skin metabolism. Vitamin B6 is important in heme and nucleic acid biosynthesis and in lipid, carbohydrate, and amino acid metabolism see table Sources, Functions, and Effects of Vitamins.Honda karting
Dietary sources of vitamin B6 include organ meats eg, liverwhole-grain cereals, fish, and legumes. See also Overview of Vitamins. Senses of touch, temperature, and pain are less affected. Motor and central nervous systems are usually intact. Treatment of vitamin B6 toxicity is to stop taking vitamin B6.
Recovery is slow and, for some patients, incomplete. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in as a service to the community.
Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge. Common Health Topics. Videos Figures Images Quizzes. Commonly Searched Drugs. Vitamin Deficiency, Dependency, and Toxicity. Test your knowledge. Which of the following can help diagnose childhood but not adult scurvy?
More Content. Click here for Patient Education. Was This Page Helpful? Yes No. Vitamin B12 Deficiency. Overview of Vitamins. General Principles of Poisoning. Add to Any Platform.Vitamin B6 is one of a group of eight B-vitamins that is essential for good health. It plays a major role in everything from movement to memory to energy expenditure and blood flow. If you are among the 24 percent of Americans who are unable to get sufficient vitamin B6 from your diet, you may need to take a supplement.
Although B6 supplements are useful for treating many conditions, taking excessive amounts can put you at risk for vitamin B toxicity. Your body needs vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, to carry out more than enzyme reactions involved in various functions, including the utilization of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Vitamin B6 benefits a range of physical, psychological and metabolic processes, the most well-known relating to your nervous system.
Vitamin B6 supplements are often used, not only to reverse a deficiencybut for the treatment of a number of conditionsincluding premenstrual syndrome, carpal tunnel, childhood autism, schizophrenia, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, morning sickness and certain types of anemia.
Read more: List of B-Complex Vitamins. Your body cannot synthesize vitamin B6, so you need to ensure your diet supplies enough of the nutrient every day. Because many foods are fortifiedit's easy to meet your daily requirements if you eat a balanced diet. Meat is the best source of vitamin B6 because it has a better bioavailability than plant-based sources, according to a paper published in StatPearls in Choose from the following vitamin B6-rich foods :. Dietary supplements are usually in the form of pyridoxine hydrochloride.
Absorption of vitamin B6 from supplements is similar to that from food sources. Vitamin B6 comes as an individual supplement or combined with other vitamin B supplements in B-complex.
Many multivitamins and herbal remedies containing B6 are sold over-the-counter for everyday use. You can take B6 supplement in an oral form, including tablet, caplet, chewable or liquid forms. Vitamin B6 can also be administered sublingually or by injection. In some cases, a vitamin B6 deficiency may warrant the use of vitamin B6 supplements due to your body's inability to properly absorb nutrients. Some of these situations include:. Read more: The Definition of Food Supplements. For good health, the Institute of Medicine recommends a daily allowance for vitamin B6, according to age and gender.
It is unlikely you could get an overdose of vitamin B6 from foodbut taking supplements that have a high vitamin B6 content may cause adverse effects. For this reason, an upper limit for vitamin B6 has been set as a guideline to help keep your dosage safe.
This amount applies to both food and supplement intakes. These amounts are :. When taking B6 supplements, even in small and recommended doses, be aware that many people experience some common, mild side effects that include:. Read more: Vitamin Toxicity Symptoms. The amount of vitamin B6 in individual supplements often ranges from 5 to milligrams per tablet. This could result in overly high B6 levels in some cases, especially if you take the supplement over a prolonged period of time. Vitamin B6 is water soluble, so excesses are normally excreted in your urine.
However, through supplementation, you might take vitamin B6 in a quantity and frequency that does not allow your body to expel it quickly enough. A study published in Poster in warns of the potential of vitamin B toxicity in levels exceeding even 50 milligrams per day taken long-term.
High vitamin B6 doses are often prescribed for certain medical conditions and metabolic diseases. Linus Pauling Institute reports that sensory neuropathy often develops at doses of vitamin B6 in excess of 1, milligrams per day. Some case reports found severe nerve damage at doses of less than milligrams per day taken over a period of months.
Excessively high doses of vitamin B6 taken over an extended period of time can result in symptoms similar to those of a vitamin B6 deficiency. Both deficiency and toxicity may cause changes in the blood, heart, skin and gastrointestinal and neuronal cells, according to a study published in Toxicology in Vitro in National Institutes of Health reported cases of dangerous toxicity resulting from taking 1 to 6 grams of vitamin B6 for a lengthy period of time.Learn something new every day More Info Because of the concern about ingesting enough vitamins and minerals for their daily needs, many people opt to take supplements.
Sometimes, this can cause an overdose of certain vitamins and minerals. One such overdose, vitamin B6 toxicity, can result in painful symptoms and bodily harm. An overdose of a certain vitamin or mineral is known as a megadose.
6 Symptoms of Vitamin B6 Toxicity to Alert Your Doctor
A megadose of vitamin B6 can occur when a person ingests more than 0. This usually happens when the vitamin taker is using a supplement known as pyridoxinewhich may be ordered by a medical professional to treat conditions such as premenstrual symptoms and carpal tunnel.
Vitamin B6 toxicity symptoms can range from mildly irritating to harmful. Patients may experience headaches, irritability, or fatigue. Depression can result from more severe damage. In the most severe cases, nerve damage and disorders can also develop, which may result in body imbalance and loss of sensation in the legs.
Numbness in hands and feet, poor coordination, loss of sensitivity to touch, and difficulty walking can also result. People who get too much vitamin B6 may lose their sensation to vibration or temperature as well. Usually, this type of symptom occurs after high doses are ingested for a long period of time.
In cases this serious, patients may experience fatigue or general tiredness for up to six months. In order to receive a diagnosis of vitamin B6 toxicity, a person should consult with a medical professional.
Clinical tests will be administered to determine whether or not toxic levels of the vitamin are present. In order to alleviate the problem, the patient will be instructed to stop taking vitamin B6. If patients have developed severe problems, they may never fully recover. For those who do recover, it is a slow process.
To prevent this toxicity from occurring, it is recommended that adults ingest no more than 0. Pyridoxine is a water soluble B-vitamin, and it is one of eight different vitamins in the B group.Join Now! Share ConsumerLab. Simply provide an email address below. You must provide a valid email address. Your message has been sent.
Thanks for sharing! Vitamin B-6 Toxicity From a Multivitamin?
Symptoms of Vitamin B6 toxicity
My blood test came back extremely high in that vitamin and I was advised to stop it. So far the pain is better after 4 months and I hope it continues to improve. It's now been over 6 months and the neuropathy is gone.
I will not be taking B6 again. I went to many neurologists and a major neurological hospital in New York City, but despite painful tests no one diagnosed the problem.
The internet did not exist but one day I read an article in a health magazine which described my symptoms and attributed them to Vitamin B-6 overload. The article even labelled my spine issue Lhermitte's Syndrome, named for a doctor. I had been taking too much B-6 due to the advice of a popular health author of the 80's.
I immediately stopped B-6 and months later the symptoms disappeared except for a permanent minor residual numbness and pain in the toes of one foot. It caused symptoms from temperature regulation to mental function. Something circulating in the blood was compounding it to take it out. Really made a big difference. It seems we don't know much about this vitamin if some people are reporting toxic effects at these levels.
I had been taking mg of B6 daily, and now take only 25mg. I changed several months ago, when a saw an article on this issue.Node js pagination
Just for others who may be reading this, keep in mind that this is an upper limit. If you are not deficient, it's still way above the amount most people need. While I know it's not recommended -- and may vary by drug -- I have taken ibuprofen, as well as several blood pressure medicines, more than 5 years past the expiration date, and they were just as effective as they were originally.
It would be interesting for CL to test some passing supplements that expired years ago, and see what kinds of results you get re degradation or not. July 1, vol. She rapidly developed neurological symptoms, which resolved when she switched to taking B1 and B2 supplements without any B6. I would love to gather more reports of this response -- I suspect that there may be some people who are hypersensitive to B6, or who have a variation in B6 metabolism that allows them to reach toxic levels at "normal" supplement doses.
If such people do exist, it would be important for doctors and consumers to know that they shouldn't categorically rule out normal levels of B6 supplementation as a possible cause of neurological symptoms. He told me to immediately stop my supplement - permanent damage can occur if the B6 levels are too high for too long.The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Vitamin B6 toxicity includes the 7 symptoms listed below: Headache Depression Fatigue Irritability Nerve damage Numbness Walking problems more information Research all specialists including ratings, affiliations, and sanctions.
More about symptoms of Vitamin B6 toxicity: More information about symptoms of Vitamin B6 toxicity and related conditions: Other diseases with similar symptoms and common misdiagnoses Tests to determine if these are the symptoms of Vitamin B6 toxicity Other Possible Causes of these Symptoms Click on any of the symptoms below to see a full list of other causes including diseases, medical conditions, toxins, drug interactions, or drug side effect causes of that symptom. Depression - see all causes of Depressive symptoms Fatigue - see all causes of Fatigue Headache - see all causes of Headache Irritability - see all causes of Irritability Nerve damage - see all causes of Nerve damage Numbness - see all causes of Numbness Walking problems - see all causes of Walking symptoms Medical articles and books on symptoms: These general reference articles may be of interest in relation to medical signs and symptoms of disease in general: More about Vitamin B6 toxicity Online Diagnosis Self Diagnosis Pitfalls Pitfalls of Online Diagnosis Symptoms of the Silent Killer Diseases Lesser known silent killer diseases Books on signs and symptoms Full list of premium articles on symptoms and diagnosis.Montgomery ward tiller gear oil
The symptom information on this page attempts to provide a list of some possible signs and symptoms of Vitamin B6 toxicity. This signs and symptoms information for Vitamin B6 toxicity has been gathered from various sources, may not be fully accurate, and may not be the full list of Vitamin B6 toxicity signs or Vitamin B6 toxicity symptoms.
All rights reserved. Last Update: 13 August, About Us Bookmark this page. Assessment Questionnaire Have a symptom? See what questions a doctor would ask. Next: Causes of Vitamin B6 toxicity.
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